Dorner illustrates a large number of differences in how successful and unsuccessful participants approach and manage the tasks. Here is one that particularly stood out for me:
Both the good and the bad participants proposed with the same frequency hypotheses on what effect higher taxes, say, or an advertising campaign to promote tourism in Greenvale [an imaginary city] would have. The good participants differed from the bad ones, however, in how often they tested their hypotheses. The bad participants failed to do this. For them, to propose a hypothesis was to understand reality; testing that hypothesis was unnecessary. Instead of generating hypotheses, they generated “truths.”[i] [emphasis mine]
How often do we test our hypotheses?